The Unique Culture of Korean Traditional Alcohols(한국의 전통주, 고유의 술 문화)
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공개기간 : 2022-12-21 ~ 2024-12-20
SEMU-YÉOL LECTURE 2022_05
The Unique CUlture of Korean Traditional Alcohols
Lecturer : Benjamin Joinau
ㆍProfessor Benjamin Joinau is a cultural anthropologist specialized in Korean studies.
ㆍHe has been living in Seoul since 1994 and teaches in Hongik University while being an associate researcher in the Center for Korean Research in EHESS, Paris.
ㆍHe is presently studying public spaces in North and South Korean cities, but he has also been working on Korean food culture for many years.
He was the host of Arirang TV program “Tasty Trail with Benjamin”.
Hello, I am Benjamin Joinau.
I am a French anthropologist living in Korea, and I'm specialized in Korean Studies.
And I have studied for many, many years, Korean food culture.
So today I would like to speak about the unique culture of Korean traditional alcohols.
And to do so, I would like to start with a personal anecdote.
Traditional alcohols and time
When I was younger, I decided to open in Seoul a French restaurant.
And when I did that, many people around me told me we are not sure that the French culture of food and wine will go so well with the Korean way of eating.
Nowadays, people are more in the bballi-bballi space, bballi-bballi meaning in Korean language "quick, quick, quick,"—we do everything quick; we are very busy all the time.
So even when we drink and when we eat, we don't have the time to participate in a long, long dinner like the French people like to do.
So people told me probably people will come have a very quick dinner, and then leave.
And then I said, Okay, why not? Let's see, and then that's what happened.
Actually, when people were served French wine, which are French, traditional alcohols, they started to do what the French people do, because you cannot do a one shot with a glass of wine, like you will do with soju, which is the alcohol commonly drunk in Korea.
So people started to sip the wine to drink in slowly, and then they ended up, my Korean customers, spending more time at the dinner table than French people.
And finally, at the end, I couldn't see any difference.
So I thought, well, that's quite interesting, because the alcohol that you serve is changing the way people behave at the dining table.
So it brought me to think about the special relationship that you have between traditional alcohols—and I insist on the traditional aspect—and time.
Because this aspect, this relationship between alcohol and time, has been a little bit lost probably in the alcohols that we consume nowadays in bars and clubs and modern restaurants.
So that's why today I want to start this presentation with this relationship, special relationship, between time and alcohols.
But first, I should introduce you to the realm of Korean alcohols and traditional beverages, and I would say that there are two kinds.
You have the fermented beverages which are, of course, the oldest.
It is the most common way of making alcohol.
Korean traditional alcohols
Fermented beverages (beer, wine -takju, makgeolli, cheongju - 발효주)
& distilled alcohols (brandy - 증류주)
So you use a ferment to start the alcoholic fermentation, and then you can do that with rice or any kind of cereal.
In Korea, for example, we use as well barley, for example, and these alcohols are called takju.
They are quite easy to do, in a way, and you can end up quickly, in a couple of days if the weather is warm, with a very simple and delicious alcohol which is usually around three, four, or five degrees like a beer would be.
And this alcohol usually is not filtered, so if you make it with rice, it means that it is going to have a very thick, white liquid, and you have the feeling to eat as well as you drink.
If you filter a little bit this alcohol called makgeolli, you obtain other kinds of takju, filtered ones which are called chungju.
So this is the kind of alcohol that you have on the picture on the right, and actually you have hundreds of them and we keep on discovering and developing new ones, of course, nowadays, with a new trend around makgeolli.
You have also the distilled alcohols; that's what we call brandy in the West and, for example, whiskey, vodka, or cognac in France or distilled alcohols.
It's a much more complex process because you have to start with an alcoholic base, let's say a wine.
And then you have to pour it through a distillation device that I will show you later.
This was brought to Korea later, and actually we think that distillation was brought in Korea by the Mongol people around the 12th or 13th century.
So you have a map on the left of the slide where you can see the different distilled traditional alcohols.
Among them, for example, the very famous traditional soju, which is made mainly in Andong—the most famous being made in Andong.
It is a very strong alcohol, more than 40 degrees, and it is actually made with rice.
And it is quite different from the soju I mentioned before, which is one of the most consumed liquors in the world now.
It is mostly drank in Korea, so that tells you how many bottles Korean people drink a year.
It is a very cheap alcohol, which is around 15 degrees, and it is not made any more with rice, which is quite expensive, so we rather use something like sweet potato to make this new soju.
But the traditional Andong Soju is much more interesting in terms of taste, and it is of course stronger.
So you have several local alcohols, all of them are now treasured as a part of Korean culture, even though some of them almost disappeared because not only of modernization but also of colonial times when the Japanese people from 1910 to 1945 tried to control the production of alcohol in the peninsula.
So there are a lot of different traditions of liquors and brandies, not only clear ones but also some alcohols are a blend of very clear liquor with fruits and berries, for example, making it a nice thick color and bringing extra flavors to it.
So I can explain a little bit the process when you want to do the takju.
Fermentation and distillation bring its own pace to traditional alcohols - the pace of nature
동동주 위에 뜬 맑은 술을 여러번 걸러낸 술
막걸리 동동주를 걷어낸 나머지 지게미로 걸러낸 술
Let's speak about the makgeolli.
This makgeolli is made with the rice, as I said, but you can use other cereals, and I will explain the process in detail a bit later.
What I want to show you here is that we use usually traditionally these big beautiful jars, dok, and then we leave the makgeolli to ferment there.
Depending on the season, it can take, let's say, two or three days, if the weather is very hot in summer.
It can take more than a week in wintertime.
So you can cover the jar with a blanket to have the proper temperature.
You have to have the temperature around more than 25 degrees, I would say—around 30 degrees—so that you have the fermentation going slowly and properly.
And then after that, you get this very thick, white, fermented makgeolli.
So as you see in the picture on the left, on the lower side, you have two ways to drink the makgeolli.
Whether you're drinking right away, and it's mixed with a lot of (INAUDIBLE), which is the rice which has been kind of broken by the fermentation, but it makes a very thick beverage.
You wait a little bit and then the rice will deposit at the bottom of the jar, and you will have the clearer beverage at the at the top of the jar.
[00:08:29] And then you take this beverage on the top and then that's what we call dongdongju.
[00:08:36] Dongdongju is a word used because you still have on top of the of the alcohol the little pieces of rice floating on top of the beverage, and in Korean it's called dongdongdong.
[00:08:50] And the more you wait, the more you have a clearer alcohol.
[00:08:57] If you take this clear alcohol and you put it in the device which is on the top of the picture on the left, you can see a traditional distillation device, and you put the clear chungju, which is the clear makgeolli version, you put it on the bottom of the distillation device and then you boil it with a fire, then it will come out from the top as a very strong and clear brandy.
[00:09:29] So that's the distillation process, and this has been quite controlled since the colonial Japanese times, and like in most countries you cannot do this kind of distilled brandy as you want; it is controlled by law, of course.
[00:09:46] Dongdongju, makgeolli, all the takju, of course you can do it at home as long as you have the proper ingredients.
Makgeolli - 막걸리
The singing beverage
[00:09:53] So let's speak about the makgeolli—I call it the singing beverage.
Indeed, when you make a makgeolli, you will start with the nuruk.
Nuruk is what you see on the right; it is made out of wheat that it has been fermented on straw in proper conditions.
You make a very strong block, as you can see, then you soak this block in water in order to have it—first of course, it should be soft, but also you start the fermentation this way.
And then while you are doing that, you are also going to steam some rice, so you can have a blend of sticky rice and normal rice, other cereals as well.
Each different makgeolli is going to have a different process, different quantities as well.
Then when you have your steamed rice, you let it stand until it gets to the 30 degree temperature.
It shouldn't be too warm—if it's too hot, it's going to kill the ferments in the nuruk.
Then you mix in a jar this rice with the nuruk, and depending on the recipe, with some water.
Sometimes you repeat the process once more, so that you have a double fermentation process, and it makes a stronger alcohol with a deeper taste.
Then you see you have this end product which is in the middle, which is a blend of nuruk—this is the brownish stuff floating on top with the rice and the water.
And you let it stand in a place which is dark, quiet, and at the proper temperature—as I said, around 30 degrees.
You will see that after one day or so, the beverage starts to sing.
There is a kind of little music, the music of the bubbles coming from the fermentation from the bottom to the top of the jar, and this makes a very beautiful sound.
You know that you succeeded and that your makgeolli is going well.
Then you wait, if you can, 2/3/4 days depending on the temperature of the room and of your recipe, of course.
You have to taste every day, and then when you think it's ready, then you can filter a little bit and then drink the makgeolli.
Most of the time this makgeolli is very sour, so to avoid this very surprising sour taste, people sometimes mix it with honey or something sweet like a kind of lemonade.
So you have, of course, hundreds of recipes—as you see on the on the right on the bottom, you have here some examples of the makgeolli bottles you can find nowadays in supermarkets, a little bit all over the country.
Each area, each region, has its own makgeolli and some of them are mixed with other flavors.
It can be something like chestnut, for example—one of them here is made with the chestnut.
It can be also ginseng—there are so many possibilities.
And since we have rediscovered the beauty of the makgeolli in recent years, and also overseas like in Japan, there was a trend of drinking Korean makgeolli, there are new recipes being developed nowadays.
So all these traditional alcohols are quite different from what we drink nowadays in clubs and bars and restaurants in Korea, which are not anymore traditional alcohols.
People drink a lot of beer and hard liquors, but also the national soju which has nothing to see,
Traditional rhythm and modern life
The modern drinking culture
as we said, with the traditional Andong soju, which is stronger and made with the rice.
Actually it came from a recent time in the 1960s when Korea was developing as a modern state and trying to overcome the poverty in which it was after the Korean War.
As you remember, Korea was the second poorest country in the world after Bangladesh in 1953.
So President Park Chung-hee in the 1960s decided that Korea should import less rice because it was not self-sufficient in terms of rice consumption.
As you know, rice is the major staple in Korea, so it is very important.
So instead of importing the rice that was not sufficient in Korea, they preferred to spend the money on importing different materials to make factories and develop the economy.
So there was a policy to limit the consumption of rice, since there was a possibility for Korea as well as for Japan to import from the United States very cheap wheat because there was a crisis on the price of wheat in the United States.
So there was a law which has been passed in the Senate in the United States allowing the American wheat to be exported to Korea and Japan for a very cheap price.
And then President Park saw it as an opportunity, so from that time, he tried to push Korean people to consume more wheat, which is not a traditional cereal in Korea, and less rice.
So keeping the rice for the table for the dinner and the lunch, they prefer to use for the traditional alcohols wheat.
So that's why we stopped producing makgeolli—at least not all the makgeolli, but many makgeollis were stopped during that time, because they are mostly made with rice, and soju started to be made with wheat.
And after, it was also produced using, as I said, different products such as sweet potato, which are cheaper and can be produced locally and not imported.
So you see there is a very recent history of the modern soju, and it is linked with the developmental model of South Korea; it goes together with this modernization of the country from the 1960s.
And it goes with the new lifestyles of this modernization, which is what we have dubbed as the bballi-bballi culture, the quick-quick-quick culture.
Everything has to be done fast because we have to move rapidly in order to develop the country and succeed.
So this is the root of the modern drinking culture, which is what we would call a binge-drinking culture.
You drink until you are drunk because you have to get rid of the extra stress brought by the hard working days, and all the stress coming from the workplace.
So of course, it makes a vibrant drinking scene at night, but at the same time, it brings a lot of other health and social problems.
As you can see on the picture, there are a lot of different ways to drink, and one (element) of this drinking culture is the poktanju and the somek for example, where you mix soju with other beverages such as beer, for example, to make cocktails which are like bombs, because when you drink them, you are very quickly drunk.
And this alcohol is not consumed for its special taste, but more for the ambience or the atmosphere it brings and especially for making you drunk very quickly.
And then it's a good way to get rid of the, as I said, of the modern society stress, but then we have maybe lost a little bit of something important in the drinking culture.
And that's why it's interesting that nowadays, many people are interested in rediscovering this traditional culture, which goes with a very important concept,
여유 - yeoyu
The proper space and relation between people
ㆍ of taste
ㆍ of ambiance
ㆍ of life
→ an special art de vivre
bringing me back to my concept of time, which is in Korean yeoyu.
Yeoyu means this special space that you have between two things—two people or two moments or two different situations—which is like a spare space.
It can be yeoyu for the money when you have enough money to do what you want.
It can be yeoyu in terms of time, when you have leisurely time to spend.
It can be a lot of things which evoke this space in between two things, which can be used as you want.
And I think this is a beautiful term to use for describing the kind of space that alcohol, especially traditional alcohol, brings between people.
And this space allows the relation—without the space between two people, you don't have a relation.
The relation is made by this in-between space, if you want, and this is something which is very much embedded in East Asian philosophy, I would say.
They even have a word for that which is the kan culture—kan being this interval between two columns or pillars, so this in-between relation is very important.
And because you have this space, which is a kind of a space allowing things to happen between you and the world, then you can develop something which is not only the appreciation of the taste of things, but also the atmosphere of the moment and also the people you are with.
And then it brings us to this very old culture, which was not the bballi-bballi culture.
When you look at the Joseon times, which is the kingdom before the modernization of the country and before the Japanese colonization, so it is from the 14th century to the early 20th century.
When you look at the Joseon kingdom and the aristocrats of this era, called the yangban and the seonbi for the literati, you can see that their way of life was very far from the bballi-bballi.
Indeed, when you look at the different texts which have been left from the end of the 19th century, when there were these first encounters between the West and Korea, you can read a lot of testimonies where foreigners are surprised by the relaxed way of life of Korean men, especially, and of the aristocrats who were leisurely smoking their pipe and looking at the stars while drinking a glass of traditional wine.
And as you can see on this drawing, for example, enjoying the company of France while reading poetry, singing, and drinking.
So it means that this bballi-bballi or quick-quick culture is something very recent, and that we have to rediscover on the roots of Korean culture, this space of yeoyu, which was the essence of elite traditional culture.
Of course, this is something which applies only for the people who could have also the financial means to do it, so the financial yeoyu.
So it was of course a way of life which was mostly the way of life of aristocrats.
This brings this French expression to me, which is art de vivre—art de vivre being the art of life.
And this art of life, which has been a little bit lost because of modernization, existed in the past in Korea, and traditional alcohols were part of this art de vivre, of this art of life.
They were actually a very important dimension, and to understand and rediscover this dimension, we can have a look, for example, at arts and, of course, literature.
So that's what I want to do from now, is to have a stroll in Korean traditional literature
In refined societies, alcohol is a source of inspiration
Poseokjeong, Silla kingdom, Gyeongju
Songseokwon Sisa, poets society, Joseon kingdom
and also in history to look at the way Korean traditional alcohols shaped this art de vivre, this art of life, of living.
Alcohol is always a source of inspiration.
Indeed, it brings you this state of mind where you can certainly have some inspiration for, let's say, poetry.
And it was used in many aristocratic and royal plays and games, such as this one which is going to be explained with the picture on the left.
It is something which happened in a very old kingdom called Shilla.
Shilla Kingdom ended during the 10th century, to give you an idea, and the Shilla Kingdom was a very important and refined kingdom.
The capital was in present-day Gyeongju in the southeast part of South Korea.
And when you go to Gyeongju, you can see a lot of very interesting remains from that time, and among them in a small park, you can see dispose of John, which is this stone—it's not exactly a sculpture, but it is this structure in the ground which appears to be a place to play a special game with alcohol.
So you have a kind of well or spring, which brought the water to flow in this shape, which is actually the shape of an abalone.
It's a shellfish, and in this shape, you would have a flow of water going all around and then the different people partaking in this game—let's say, people from the royal court and the king himself would play—would sit all around.
And then some of them would give a challenge to someone else which is to make, let's say, a poem using some fixed number of verses.
And then you would pour on the water a floating cup filled with alcohol, and then the cup would flow on with the with the stream all around and before the cup reaches the person who is challenged, that person had to compose poem according to the instruction given.
So it was quite quick, I guess, to get the cup coming to you, so you have to be very, very quick in terms of inspiration.
And if you couldn't compose the poem and of course tell the poem at the end, when the cup was coming to you, then you had to drink the cup of alcohol.
So it was actually what we call in Korea nowadays, a sul game, a game of alcohol, a drinking game, but much more refined because it was all about poetry.
You can see that alcohol was a part of this elite people culture; you can find it also during the Joseon dynasty that I already mentioned.
For example, on the right, you can see this picture, which is actually a very old painting from the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century, when you started to have more and more poets' societies, especially in cities like Seoul, which was the capital.
You had the people from the middle class, who started to have these gatherings which were not anymore only for the aristocrats, for the elite.
And they started to enjoy this shisa, meaning these groups or societies of poets.
People would gather at regular events with regular dates, let's say, for the beginning of spring, in the middle of summer, then for the beginning of fall, for example.
And then they would gather in a special place, usually in a beautiful valley or on a hill in the countryside, and mostly also in Seoul.
And then they would drink and then have some poetry reading and as well have songs and music, so it was a way for these educated people, especially male, to spend time together and have a bond.
And in this painting, you can see this group of people from the Songseogwan shisa, or the poets' society from Songseogwan, which was a place in an area of Seoul that you can visit nowadays, which is called Seochon—it's not far from the Gyeongbokgung Palace.
And you can find some traces of this old culture, when at that time during the Joseon times, this part of Seoul was inside the walls of the city, but was still very natural, as you can see with the trees and valley and meadows.
And there were some such roofs here and there, so kind of cabins or huts, where these poets could have a pleasant evening.
And you can see this is, for example, this Songseogwan shisa meeting, which is under the moon—it's not the sun, yeah, it's the moon—and it shows you this very refined culture blending alcohol and literature.
Alcohol and literature have a very strong relation in Korean traditional history.
Lee Gyu-bo (1168-1241)
국선생전 한국고전소설 이규보
Four-wheels pavilion, 사륜정
For example, the very famous poet from the Goryeo time—so it's another kingdom in-between the Silla and the Joseon kingdom, so it's someone who lived during the 12 and 13th century.
And this Yi Gyubo literati was someone wrote a lot of different books and poetry as well, and a lot of his poems are about alcohol because he loved drinking.
He loved drinking so much that he invented a cart that you can see on the right, which is a thatched pavilion with four wheels, which would be used as a cart with two oxen in order for him to be sitting under the pavilion with his friends, drinking alcohol, and reading poetry while moving around in order to appreciate the landscape and especially a changing landscape; hence the moving four wheels pavilion.
So it means that he went to the point to invent this device because he loved, at the same time, landscape and landscape watching, but also drinking when watching the landscape and reading poetry at the same time.
So it proves this very high level of refinement in the art de vivre, in the art of living of this poet Yi Gyubo.
He also wrote a book that we have the cover of the book in Korean on the left, which is Gukseonsaengjeon, which is one of these biographies.
It was a very favored genre during the Joseon times, doing biographies of people who existed, who were historical figures, but also of mythical or legendary figures, and this is the biography of Sire Alcohol.
It is a biography of someone who is impersonating the alcohol, so it means that Yi Gyubo had such a love for a traditional alcohol that he would even write a biography of alcohol.
We have other texts, which are quite interesting.
Yi Hwang (1502-1571) and Jucheonseok, the liquor spring
One of them is mentioning a legend which was very popular during the Joseon times, which is the legend of Jucheonseok.
It is a legend that you find in China, but was also existing in Korea.
People said that in the Gangwon Province, you had a spring producing natural alcohol—very clear, very pristine alcohol—and then one day, the gods decided to move the spring.
So the place was still there, but there it was empty; it was not producing any more alcohol.
So many people were looking for the spring during the Joseon times, hoping to find a spring which is producing this alcohol, which is supposed to give you immortality in order to bring it to the king.
And then you have many texts about this Jucheonseok spring, and one of the very, very famous literati and philosophers of the 16th century, someone who is a very prominent figure of the Korean Renaissance, is one of the most important Neo Confucian scholars of his time, Yi Hwang.
His pen name is also Toegye, and you find him on the 1000 won jipye and then you can find him then on the Korean money, because he's really, really well known in Korean history for what he did, and what he wrote, especially.
And one of his texts is, again, this legend of Jucheonseok, because he thought that it was just a way used by the literati to be able to try to please the king by saying that they were going to find this liquor spring in order to bring this liquor to the king.
And that actually was a very irrational legend that should be abandoned, and Yi Hwang was trying to have a modern look, a more rational look, Jucheonseok spring, saying that actually it was giving a water which was for not only for the rich and the aristocrats, but for everybody, and that we should read correctly the legend of the spring.
So you see you have some democratic ideals in in this legend, but this means also that many, many people believed in that beautiful story actually of a natural spring bringing liquor.
Liquor, liquor, liquor—you find it all over Korean literature, so I cannot, of course,
The Constitution of the Coutry of Alcohol, 1929 By Cha Sang-chan (1887-1946)
술 권하는 사회
김동언, 염상섭과 더불어 근대문학 초기 단편소설 양식을 개척하고 사실주의 문학의 기틀을 마련한 작가
“The Society that Drives You to Drink”, 1921 By Hyun Jin-geon (1900-1943)
Resisting colonial rule through alcohol
Elisaberth Keith, 1946
speak about all of the texts, but some of them are really funny.
For example, on the left, you have the picture of Cha Sang-Chan, who is a writer.
He wrote a lot of different texts, but he wrote a lot for the newspapers.
And he wrote a very funny text in 1929, which was imagining there was a country called Alcohol, Juguk.
And then this alcohol country needs a constitution, and it's a constitution tells the people how they should behave towards alcohol and the way they have to drink every day and the proper way to drink.
So, you see this alcohol culture becomes a little bit part of the everyday life of people so that even writers have to make some rules about how to drink and how to live with alcohol.
And there is, I would say, even a kind of cult to alcohol starting to develop with time, and people start to think that alcohol can be at the center of their life.
Of course, this is related to modern life and probably the rapid modernization of Korea, which has been called by some sociologist like Chang Kyung-Sup "compressed modernity", which is a very specific way of experiencing modernization.
It brings a lot of pressure on the people with the changing traditions, and also this pressure brings stress, and this is probably the reason why alcohol in modern times became so important in the life of people to cope with this compressed modernization.
For example, you can find a text by Hyon Chin-gon, a very famous writer from the colonial times, who published this Sul kwonhanun sahoe, which means in English, "the society that drives you to drink".
You can imagine what kind of content this story is about, and you see from the 1920s already, this relationship between modernity and drinking habits, it becomes quite clear.
Because at the same time, the society is modernizing, and then you have growing urbanization of Korea.
And with the new urban context, you have more and more places to drink.
You have less place places to drink outside in a traditional setting, whereas in cities, you have a development of the modern—we don't call them bars yet—but cafes, of course, and also the traditional inns where you can have a drink.
So that's why I chose to give you on the right this beautiful drawing by Elizabeth Keith was a westerner who lived in Korea in the 1940s, and she practiced the Japanese art of ukiyo-e, which is the printing technique.
And she drew many beautiful scenes of everyday life in the 1940s in Korea, like this eating house, and you can have an image of what it looked like to have dinner and some drinks in one of these inns in Seoul.
Indeed, this is a very important dimension of the alcohol culture.
Popular ways of sharing alcohol From the jumak to the pojangmacha
Kim Hong-do (1745-1806)
Alcohol was not experienced and enjoyed only by the rich people.
Poor people could have alcohol in places called the jumak, the traditional inns, and also in other kinds of places in the city.
And nowadays, I would say that the modern jumak is what we call in Korean the pojangmacha.
If you come to Korea, you cannot miss them.
They are very bright orange tents open all night long, where you can order some simple food to go with the drinks and makgeolli and soju and beer, different alcohols, and there is a fantastic atmosphere.
Because these are small places, which are kind of islands in the city where you feel protected and you can drink and then meet people and speak about different topics.
Alcohol helping you to be more free with your language and with your thinking as well.
So as I mentioned before, in this kind of pojangmacha place, you will have always something to eat with the alcohol.
It is a very traditional way in Korea; you need to order what we call the anju, which is these different side dishes which are going to make the drinking safe.
Because if you have something in the stomach, then you will be able to drink more.
For example, if you go to Jeonju, a beautiful city in the southwest part of South Korea, you can enjoy a very specific culture.
When you order a kettle of makgeolli, like in this picture on the left, you get a full table of anju.
And if you order another kettle of makgeolli, then the table is going to be replaced with a new set of food.
So it's a way to at the same time enjoy the local culinary traditions and delicious food with the wonderful atmosphere of these bars— very lively, very loud.
So of course, here we are quite far from the aristocratic culture of the Joseon times, but there is still something in the spirit of sharing taking the time to speak, and also why not meet the strangers sitting on the next table.
New traditions, new ways of drinking
So this is part of the beautiful Korean tradition which has been evolving to the point that nowadays of course we are rediscovering the alcohols which disappeared or almost disappeared.
As I said, we are developing new recipes and also new ways of drinking.
As you can see in this picture, you have a very refined makgeolli, which is served with Western-style cheese or salami.
And nowadays, you have mixologists inventing new cocktails using traditional distilled liquors, so there are many, many more ways nowadays to rediscover this traditional culture and the yeoyu, this spare time and space that we probably missed a lot during the process of modernization in South Korea.
But nowadays people are really longing for this new yeoyu, and I think that alcohol is a symbol of that.
So I would like to end this presentation by reading a poem by Yi Gyubo—you remember, the poet from the Goryeo times; the person who invented this cart pavilion which would go around the countryside with him drinking with his friends.
This is a shijo—a very short poem expressing his love for alcohol.
I read" "Even sick, I cannot refuse a glass of alcohol.
I will put it down only when dead.
What is the pleasure of living sober?
What a beautiful thing it is to die when drunk."
Thank you very much.